See Dart … Java?

About a month ago, Google made headlines when an email describing ambitious plans to re-create JavaScript was leaked to the web. This email created quite a stir and spawned numerous debates ranging from the hubris of Google in trying to single-handedly replace such a ubiquitous staple of the web to the possible merits of Google’s decision on a technical level and the kinds of exciting innovations that could occur.

While I personally didn’t feel great about Google’s actions, I decided to reserve my public judgement for the time when Google actually released the language. Two days ago, that finally happened. So, let’s take a look:

main() {
  print('Hello, Dart!');

Ummm … ok. This chunk of code looks similar to JavaScript, so that’s not all bad. However, I was really expecting something more groundbreaking in terms of syntax. While I don’t loath semi-colons as line endings (you have to have something, right?) the new trend these days is to exclude them. Specifically coming from a JVM perspective Scala, Groovy and Clojure, three of the most popular Java alternatives, are happily semi-colonless. Also, as Google has deep Python roots, I expected they’d create something with a more “modern” syntax. But that’s ok … I can live with semi-colons. Let’s dig a bit through the Dart sample source code (can currently be found on Dart’s Google code page).

Check out (I’ve removed the comments for brevity):

class BiIterator<E> {
  ObservableValue<int> currentIndex;

  List<E> list;

  BiIterator(this.list, [List<ChangeListener> oldListeners = null]): currentIndex = new ObservableValue<int>(0) {
    if (oldListeners != null) {
      currentIndex.listeners = oldListeners;
  E next() {
    if (currentIndex.value < list.length - 1) {
      currentIndex.value += 1;
    return list[currentIndex.value];

  E get current() {
    return list[currentIndex.value];

  E previous() {
    if (currentIndex.value > 0) {
      currentIndex.value -= 1;
    return list[currentIndex.value];

  void jumpToValue(E val) {
    for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) {
      if (list[i] === val) {
        currentIndex.value = i;

When I first saw this code, I instantly recognized a very similar syntax to Java 5 generics. Eerily similar, in fact. As powerful as Java generics are, not too many people like the syntax. To port what many consider to be kruft to a brand new language is an odd choice.

Another interesting thing about this code is the inclusion of strict comparison operators (i.e. ‘===’ and ‘!==’, see line 31 for an example). While the use of these operators is instantly recognizable to those of us who regularly use JavaScript, I think it a very odd decision to include these operators in a brand new language. They are, essentially, a JavaScript oddity that often confuses people when they first learn the language.

So far, things aren’t looking great for Dart.

There is hope, however: Dart has great support for concurrency. It implements a version of the Actor model (see for details) placing code into Web Workers behind the abstraction. Concurrency is rarely easy and the Actor model is a great way to abstract that kind of complexity away from the developer.

So, let’s take a look at a basic Actor (Dart’s interface is called an Isolate):

class Printer extends Isolate {
  main() {
    port.receive((message, replyTo) {
      if (message == null) port.close();
      else print(message);

main() {
  new Printer().spawn().then((port) {
    for (var message in ['Hello', 'from', 'other', 'isolate']) {

Huh. It doesn’t look terrible, but I’ve been doing a lot of Scala development recently and Scala also happens to have actors. Let’s take a quick look at how Scala might implement the above code:

import scala.actors.Actor._ 
val portActor = actor {
    while (true) {
        receive {
            case msg => println(msg)
List("Hello", "from", "other", "actor").foreach( word => portActor ! word)

Granted: these are both contrived examples. However, look at the Scala version. It’s doing some tricks like importing a static Actor but it is still, at least to my eyes, much more readable and elegant than the Dart version. While it’s nice to have an actor-based model for client development, I feel like Dart’s falls short in comparison to Scala’s state of the art implementation. Again, considering this is a brand new language, this is puzzling.

Finally, Dart itself can either be executed in a virtual machine or transpiled to JavaScript for execution in a browser. Since most browsers outside of Chrome won’t have much support for a native Dart VM in the near future, let’s take a look at Dart’s transpiling overhead. This is probably all you need: Dart’s ‘Hello World’ application transpiled to over 17,000 lines of JavaScript. Wow. To be fair, this overhead has to do with setting up Dart’s optional typing system and other niceties of the language which is more akin to including a library. As such, this isn’t an apples-to-apples comparison with JavaScript itself or something like CoffeeScript which transpiles in a more one-to-one fashion.

But still. Wow.

So, at least for now, it seems like Dart is a bit of a snooze. As much as I was disappointed in Google with not being more open about the development of Dart, I was also excited in seeing something that would simply blow away JavaScript and set the stage for something ground-breaking (maybe something like “ScalaScript”). Dart is not that. Core Java developers will likely feel right at home with Dart, but I can’t see the huge community of client-side JavaScript engineers being very excited about this.

Dart, I am disappoint.


About johnnywey

Welcome to A Regular Expression. This blog is designed to reflect my thoughts on life, music, software design, Apple, faith, philosophy, and whatever else I can think of.

Posted on October 12, 2011, in Google, Java, JavaScript, Programming, Web. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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